Evolution of Mobile Technology (1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, 6G)

Mobile technology appears to change rapidly over the decades. It seems it has become everyday use; people tend to attend to their mobiles more than their welfare. Many technology gurus believed that the future of technology rests in mobile computers and wireless networks.

In the earlier years, People tend to only use mobile technology specifically for calling and vocal communication. Still, the wireless network needs to evolve when people want more of the telephone, the introduction of ‘texting’ other mobiles came in.

Jagadish Chandra Bose, an Indian Scientist, was believed to be the father of wireless networks after pioneering wireless communication in the 1890s.

Nowadays, the use of mobile technology cannot be over-emphasized; in fact, many use it as part of their source of income, from paying for their next meal to ordering an Uber cab, from making videos to online marketing, social media, and all.

The evolution of generation bands has proven to be one of the best inventions ever seen, thanks to rapid advances and growth in mobile and telecommunications. 

It all began with the 1G mobile system, which only transmitted analog signals, followed by 2G mobile technologies, which sent digital signals. The third generation is the 3G, known for high data transmission, followed by 4G, popularly 4G LTE.

We will be discussing the evolution of these mobile networks from 1G to the current 5G. Mobile technology constitutes the most online presence and digital buoyancy we find in the world today. Let’s take a brief ride on how it evolves.



First-generation is totally based on analog signals introduced in the 1980s. It first became operational by Nippon Telephone and Telegraph (NTT) in Tokyo, Japan but implemented in North America. They were named Analog Mobile Phone Systems (AMPS). They were based primarily on circuit-switched technology.

The first-generation network is designed for voice alone but can be modulated to a higher frequency. The demerits of the first generation of mobile networks are built with low capacity and are vulnerable to eavesdropping from voices outside the call.

They are used for analog radio and analog cell phones. It has continued till the release of the second generation.

2G: Second-generation Mobile Technology

The second generation is a step ahead of the first-generation mobile network. It was established around the 1980s and spans through the late 1990s’. Below are the merits of 2nd generation mobile technology over 1st generation mobile technology 

1.) It is made up for voice transmission with a digital signal and speeds up to 64kbps, unlike the first generation, which runs at 24kbps.

2.) The 2G is improved with better bandwidth, about 200kHz, and provides services for short message services (SMS), unlike 1G, which focuses on voice transmission alone.

3.) 2G services also pave the way for more digital services and bring about greater security for both sender and receiver because every text is digitally encrypted

4.) 2G pave the way for GSM development (Global System for mobile communication), which uses digital modulation to improve voice quality and offer minimal data services.

Asides, from these, we have levels to the 2G mobile technology. We have the 2.5th generation mobile technology, which is also known as GPRS (General packet Radio Services). They are an extension of the existing 2G network, and they have implemented a packet-switched domain in services. They provide services such as wireless application protocol (WAP), and multimedia messaging services (MMS).

We also have 2.75 generation mobile technology known as EDGE (Enhanced data rates for GSM evolution). Cingular introduced it. They evolve from the GPRS and are almost similar to 3G because of their improved functionality. It is preferred over GSM because of its flexibility to carry packet switch data and circuit switch data. It is swift!

3G —Third Generation mobile technology

It was invented and introduced in the year 2000 and is known to improve data connectivity and is used mainly for multimedia cellular phones— known as SMARTPHONES. They are primarily based on International Telecommunication Union (ITU).

They enable their network operators to use a broader range of more advanced services, therefore achieving greater network capacity and improved spectral efficiency. 

3G enables video calls, broadband wireless data, Mobile TV, GPS, fast communication, 

video calls, multimedia messaging services, 3D gaming, enhanced audio and video streaming, web and wap browsing at higher speeds, IPTV e.t.c

We also have 3.5G— HSDPA (High-speed downlink packet access). This is mobile telephony that provides smooth evolutionary paths for UMTS— based 3G networks allowing for higher data transfer speeds.

We also have the 3.75G— HSUPA (High-speed uplink packet access). It involves a technology band— which has grown beyond 3G and moves close to 4G technology. 

This enhances advanced person-to-person data applications with higher and symmetrical data rates like mobile email and confirms one-on-one gaming.

4G— fourth-generation mobile technology. 

4G is the fourth generation of mobile cellular network technology, and This network succeeded 3G with powerful and premium functionality. Anyone using the 4G internet can access the internet of the web address, IP telephony, gaming services, video conference, and 3D television even in motion. It transfers up to 1Gbps on stationery between server and data transfer and 60kmph and above while moving about.

Every functionality of 3G you can think of is embedded in the 4G network as well. It has MMS entertainment services.

4G is the most used mobile technology nowadays in most countries; however, in 2009, the first commercial deployments of the Long Term Evolution (LTE) standard took place in Oslo, Norway, and Stockholm, Sweden. It has since then spread to almost every country on the planet.

5G— The fifth-generation mobile technology

5G is the fifth generation of mobile technology. It is the highest premium form of mobile network used in institutions today; the 5G network heralds the new age of mobile networking technologies. They have simultaneous access to several wireless technologies, and the terminals should be able to integrate different flows and communications from various technologies. 5G combines analog and digital formats so that analog reflects sound and digital-only images and videos.

5G wireless devices in a mobile cellular network communicate with a local antenna using radio waves; these antennas are typically millimeter-wave antennas, which are smaller than antennas used in previous generations. They have a low-power automatic transmitter and receiver in a cell that is often reused.

With 5G networks exceeding 10Gbps – up to 100 times higher than 4G – they would provide the level of service needed by an increasingly linked world.

Check out: 4G Vs 5G Mobile technology

5G wireless infrastructure is intended to provide more consumers with faster multi-Gbps peak download rates, improved reliability, large network bandwidth, and increased availability. It will also reduce latency on networks and a more uniform user interface: improved results and higher performance to empower new user experiences and connect new industries.

The new 5G protocol is much quicker and more responsive, with much greater bandwidth, and will be a real milestone for the vast Internet of Things (IoT), using machine learning and artificial intelligence to simplify network maintenance and protection.

6G- Sixth Generation Mobile Technology

Experts are working hard on bringing about 6G already. 6G networks are expected to appear in 2028 and will be the first mobile data network to replace unique mobile SIM cards with a ‘virtual’ SIM. 6G can be massively quicker and have even greater power, allowing for much more widespread use of sensors and ‘Internet of Things networks.

1G, 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, 6G Comparison Chart Table

Here are the differences and comparisons of 1G to 6G technologies in a table.

1G 2G 3G 4G 5G 6G comparison chart in a table


6G will be the sixth generation of wide-area wireless technology. More advanced than the 5G, with incredible data rates of 20 gigabytes per second and lower latency of Milliseconds.

Do you know what that means? Superfast! That’s the name!

Although it is not yet in town, there are indications of the development in some parts of the world- including China. Although we claim to be in the 5G world, anything that evolves and shows any radical growth now, In this era of modern mobile network technology, is 6G!


5G means smaller cells, higher frequencies, and more bandwidth, and it is related to augmented reality, and virtual reality while 6G is a kind of crazy science fiction, they are so advanced that they do technology that is not possible with 5G, I mean that is not even possible with technology that we know how to do yet.

Here are some of the advanced things that 6g does and makes it stand out amongst the other mobile network technology.

1.) They will be the first to replace mobile sim with virtual sim. They will not make use of cellular networks like that of 5G, which usually rely on cell sites, but instead make use of meshed networks, where everyone can have access to a stark of web making use of Terahertz (i.e., the wireless frequency with a short-range network, and higher frequency than anything that exist)

2.) The 6G will allow multi-sensory XR applications: This will be like an advanced virtual reality suit, In which, when worn, will be so advanced that it will provide you with the five sense feeling of the body (i.e., you feel the touching, smell, feeling, etc.) This cannot be possible with 5G because it has higher latency which cannot birth such an advanced result.

3.) Wireless Brain to computer interface: Brain implants will be possible and feasible, the kind of brain implant that controls the computer and receives inputs and data from the computer. This might look terrifying, and it means more advanced technology in science like new stronger prosthetics, virtual bodies (like exoskeletons), the remote android that can be operated from a distance, ability for humans to control and interact with their environment with haptic communication from emotionally driven devices that can match user mood.

4.) Smart surfaces and powerful network environment: In 6G world will become superbly smart. Everything will be super-smart. We will not cherish our phones as we did now. Screen everywhere, display every corner, on the table, on a driver’s seat, in an engineering truck, in the science laboratory pipette, on the reading glasses, some can even be embedded in our brain.

Many indications seem to object to the development of 6G, even 5G, due to some rumors about health issues like cancer and the like. Still, It is nowhere to affirm that these rays and wavelengths cause health-related problems. If it were to be so, half of the world would be living with cancerous cells. The 6G will not be released officially anytime now till ten years from now and above. Till then, let’s keep our fingers crossed.

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